About us

Tuesday, 29 December 2015


Section A


Social Issues

A social issue can be defined as an issue affecting society or an issue that influences  and is opposed by a large number of individuals within society.

Concern about a social issue may arise due to the fact that it:

* Involves what most people consider to be inappropriate behaviour
* Shows a declination in moral values in an individual
* Has serious implications on the country's finances and how money is spent.

Steps in formulating strategies to deal with Social Issues

1. Identify the problem

2. Try to find out how and why this problem as arisen

3. Determine its implications for society

4. Find possible solutions to address the issue

Things that causes Social Issues

* Poverty
* Desertion
* Domestic Violence
* Child Abuse
* Street Children
* Incest
* Teenage pregnancy 


Tuesday, 24 November 2015


Effective Parenting

Effective parents are persons who posses particular knowledge and skills to develop certain values and attitudes within their children.

Showing Love and Warmth

It is imperative that love and warmth are given to children by their parents, as they are vulnerable and are easily led astray. Should children feel as though they are being neglected or unwanted, this may have a negative long lasting effect on that child.

Socializing Skills

Norms, Mores and Values are learnt by children from their parents, therefore it is important for parents to act as role models for their children, displaying the most acceptable behaviour. This is very important as parents are the primary socializing agents within society.

Problem-solving Skills

Problem-solving skills should be one of the many skills which are passed on to children from their parents, hence the reason why children need  good and effective parents as role models. Many childhood problems tend to affect children when they become adults, this has to do with lack of training by parents based on the fact that children are unable to cope with disappointments, cruelty or unfairness being meted out to them.



Monday, 23 November 2015


The Effects of Changing Roles and Responsibilities for Men and Women

Identification Crisis

We as individuals gain our personal identity from roles defined by society for us, as well as the persons around us within our social circles. When a male is brought up in a family where his father was the head of the household, then he is most likely to pattern his father's role and take the same approach. This kind of outlook on a male's role works mainly in a patriarchal society, and may create a problem with other social construct. When a female is brought up on being domesticated, then she will be most inclined to take the responsibility of being homemaker as well as the main agent for socialization for her children, however this might pose a problem for females who desire to be independent of a man. This may affect a female's role based on the fact that she will now have to balance being a good and effective mother and working for an income.


Friday, 20 November 2015


Changing family Roles and Responsibilities

Roles and Responsibilities are amended as individuals responds to changes.
The traditional roles and responsibilities of males and females are slowly but surely changing,
it is no longer acceptable to view women as mediocre within the household, as the roles are now changing, in fact the roles and responsibilities of women are now shared by men. This is because the female now as the ability to do the same job as the male, therefore decision making are also shared.

Factors Contributing to Family Changing Roles

Over the years women have been subordinate to their male counterparts, and are mainly used as a socializing agent for children. Children also learn traditionally from their mothers (especially female) how to be domesticated.

There are factors that have contributed largely to these role changes, these are:

* Education - Females now has access to education, which enables them to be equipped for a job.

*Employment Opportunities - They can now have a wider scope of jobs to choose from therefore it is not only limited to                                               males, females now has access to the jobs as males.

*Technology - This makes it easier for women to do jobs, even jobs that were required to be done by                                                   males because they are physically stronger. 

*Leisure Activities - Women now has more time to enjoy leisure activities and therefore spend less                                                                time at home.




Roles, Relationships and Responsibilities

Depending on an individual status within the family,the Roles Relationship and Responsibilities may deviate.Status can be defined as the relative position or standing of things or especially person in society.Persons within a family can have more than one role or status, take a woman for example she may have the roleof being a mother, sister,aunt or a wife, as well as a man may have the role of being a son, husband, uncle or a father.Most family structure carries authority,whether headed by the Male or the Female adult. One person can be in authorityas well as both at the same time, however in which ever case the Male figure is normally the final decision maker.

Family Roles (Traditional)

Within society normally families exist to reflect its values. Where the Patriarchal society is concerned,the social system is controlled by males.This has been the norm for most Caribbean families who believe in the traditional male roles.

Male Roles

Male roles traditionally, is seen as the breadwinner or the sole provider for the family,
this includes working to earn a steady income stream.

As head of the household the male is seen by many as the disciplinarian and is normally responsible:

*Training and moral instructions

*Applying punishments and sanctions, should behaviour be unacceptable.

*Ensuring behaviour that is expected is understood.

Female Roles

Female roles traditionally, can be seen as the caregiver for children and with that comes the need to create a safe and healthy environment for the family.

As caregiver a female's responsibilities are as follows:

*Counselling of children

*Preparation of healthy meals

*Showing children love, acceptance and comfort

*The main agent of Socialization for children

Sibling Roles

Sibling roles traditionally, is normally to contribute to the household by doing chores as soon as they are of age to do so. These are:

*Running errands

*Going to the grocery shop

*Washing dishes and cleaning the house.

Failure to carry out a role

failure can be based on the fact that multiple roles are assigned to an individual, which can sometimes cause neglect of other important roles.


Conflict may arise if one neglect their roles or responsibilities. This can be expected as this is a natural part of human interaction especially within the family since this is where most of our time, energy and emotions are spent. Individuals with different personality types, at different stages of development living in the same close space can be annoyed by each other.

The family is where an individual learn about their personalities and learning how to manage them. Persons should feel safe enough to express themselves around family members, when they are not able to do that in the wider society.

Conflict between parents

To avoid disagreement between parents, they must first learn to:

*Agree on their given roles and responsibilities.

*Balance of relationship with family life and personal life.

*financial difficulties are to be dealt with by both partners

*Be faithful to the relationship, conflict that are not resolved may lead up to breaking up of the relationship.

Conflict between Children and Parents

Children sometimes may not see the benefits of their responsibilities and therefore feel as though they are being bullied by their parents while parents think that children are being disobedient, hence the reason for conflict.

Conflict between Siblings

This is mainly because of different personality types as well as different stages of development.


Wednesday, 11 November 2015


Section A

# 1

In number one of section A we will talk about the family and the individual.
After reading this section it should be easy to:
* Grasp the concepts and terms associated with the family
* The Major Roles of the family
* Know the different family types
* Understand roles and responsibilities of sibling and adult/s within the family
* Give reasons for cause and effect of role changing in the family
* Observe the characteristics of effective parenting
* Explain the factors that helps in preparing for parenthood

Terms and Concept of the Family

A family is a group of people related through kinship or blood or in some cases through marriage.
Other relationships can be classified as family as well such as common-law marriage and consensual unions.
What makes a family different from a group is the fact that these individuals are related
by blood or by marriage, a group of unrelated people living together would be individuals sharing residence,
they would be called a group and not family.

Family Types and Unions

There are a wide number of family types that can be found within the Caribbean, these family types are:

* Nuclear Family
This is a family that consists of an adult couple whether married
or in a consensual union, living together with their children.

* Extended Family This family extends way beyond a nuclear family, this includes numerous generations
of family members living together under the same roof or close-by.

* Sibling HouseholdThe Sibling household is also a type of family, this is where the younger siblings are being
nurtured by their older brother or sister based on the absence of both parents.

* Single - Parent Family A single parent family is a family with only one parent present, this could be for various reasons.

* Blended or Re organised Family A blended Family consists of both adult couple with children from previous relationship into their new family.

Changing Family structures
There are various types of family structures within these aforementioned family types such as the passing down of the ethnic heritage.

The African-Caribbean family structure carries the grandmother which plays a dominant role in the household. The important role played by mothers within this family shows the matrifocal nature of most African countries around the world which are based on matriarchal lines. 

The Indian-Caribbean family structure comes from the Indian culture where the father
head of the household.The father chooses his daughter's husband, this kind of family shows the
patrifocal nature within the Indian family.

The Chinese Caribbean family structure normally practice their language in keeping with their Chinese tradition

Unions within the Caribbean

Legal Marriage

This can be defined as a union between two persons recognizable by law. Customarily the couple shares the same dwelling.There are different types of legal marriages,these are:
Monogamy is when a person has one husband or wife, however when someone is involved with more than one husband or wife this is known as polygamy.

A woman having more than one husband is known as polyandry and a man having more than one wife is known as polygyny.

Common law / Consensual Unions
This Union is when two persons live together as a couple and has sexual relations but is not married.

Visiting Relationships
This type of union is one where the couple does not live together but instead visits each other's residents.